10 Take Aways From President Buhari’s Independence Day Speech

Oluwatosin Fatoyinbo

As is usual tradition with October 1, President Buhari gave a speech that most Nigerians could not watch live as there was no power to connect their televisions. Most did read the speech afterwards. I watched video clips of the speech and read the full text of same. It was generally the basic recapitulation that we hear every October 1. However, the President made certain statements and raised certain issues that we need to re-examine:


But let me say to all Nigerians today, I ran for office four times to make the point that we can rule this nation with honesty and transparency.

Nothing can be more far from the truth than this. Mr. President has blatantly slapped honesty and transparency in the face. Where should we start from? Is it the fact that the President promised a fight against corruption whilst many of his Ministers have corruption smeared like faeces but seeing they are in the bathroom of the APC, they have been washed as white as snow? ‘Saint’ Rotimi Amaechi, Dubai property owner Lt. General Tukur Buratai, arms procurement scandal free Lt. General Abdulrahman Dambazzau. Hey what about Oga Usani Usani of God? The President has baggages all around him and he doesn’t seem to see them as such “I don’t think I tolerate corruption, I don’t think I picked anybody that I know will embarrass my government. But if you have any evidence about any of my ministers, I accept responsibility for the 36 ministers that I have. ‘’I don’t think I took anybody among the ministers who has got a case in court. Tell me one out of the 36. I don’t think I will deliberately make that mistake,” he said. Haha! There goes your transparency and honesty.

Should we talk about the fact that we just recently awarded a contract to the Company owned by the Chairman of our great party in Rivers State? You know Amaechi and Dakuku Peter-side and the Chairman of our great party in Rivers State form part of the 5% that gave us vote and even though our initial plan was to tell the 5 percenters to go to hell, I changed my mind and conceded to give them some chin-chin to munch on. At least they deserve that much. That should be enough for the 5 percenters; my focus is on the people.

What happened to the Presidential fleets, we were supposed to dispose of them right? Hmmm!

“Baba, we need to dispose the Presidential fleets like we promised”

“I don’t know what you are talking. Did I promise or APC promised?”

Should we talk about the fact that the first family decided that the United Nations General Assembly was the perfect location for a family vacation?

“Oh but Obama’s wife was there too!

“What about Malia and Sasha, were they at the UNGA too?”

“Errm, I admit there is no precedent for that but then their trip was sponsored by a third party organisation”

“What is the name of the third party organisation and why are they sponsoring the first family to the UNGA”

No response!!!

On Security, we have made progress. Boko Haram was defeated by last December – only resorting to cowardly attacks on soft targets, killing innocent men, women and children.

The President himself alluded to the fact that until the Chibok girls are rescued, we cannot say Boko Haram has been defeated but we must agree that the arsenal of Boko Haram has been badly overrun and hope for the best for the girls whose innocence has been snatched away from them.


Nigerians should thank our gallant men of the Armed Forces and Police for rescuing large areas of the country captured by insurgents. Now, residents in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa States, as well as several neighbouring states go about their daily business in relative safety.


On this I cannot disagree with the President. We have lost courageous men and women in the fight against this deadly cancer called Boko Haram and the country will eternally be grateful to them. They are the real heroes, not our shameless political elites.


Besides Boko Haram, we are confronting other long-running security issues, namely herdsmen vs farmers, cattle rustling, kidnappings. This Administration is firmly resolved to tackle these challenges and to defeat them.


Rough statistics indicate that the Fulani herdsmen have killed not less than 700 people and displaced thousands in 2016 alone. It is highly ridiculous that this Government allowed this to thrive under its watch, to say that the rustlers are happy will be to say the least. Not a single Fulani herdsman behind the dastardly acts has been arrested and it is obvious that the government has no intention of arresting any of these wicked murderers. Rather than apprehend this wicked and devilish souls, the proposal is to use government resources to protect the herdsmen. Or how else will you explain the fact that we are proposing to build grazing reserves alone as the solution to the crisis. And whilst we must not unfairly label all herdsmen as murderers, there is the need to bring the killers and arsonists amongst them to justice, no matter the grazing reserves, the bad ones will continue to feel entitled and will again kill and burn down villages in the near future.


A new insurgency has reared up its head in the shape of blowing up gas and oil pipelines by groups of Niger Delta Militants. This Administration will not allow these mindless groups to hold the country to ransom.


Juxtapose the military force with which the government has reacted to the new rise of militancy in the creeks against the docile and lackadaisical response to the Fulani herdsmen attacks and you cannot deny that there is a disconnect. The herdsmen are taking lives, the boys from the creeks are blowing up oil facilities, both should be treated accordingly as what it is, terrorism. You cannot smile and pat the herdsmen on the back while spanking the creek boys on the bum bum. It shows the government is either merely paying lips service or showing ethnic bigotry and nepotism (which by the way are areas in which the government appears to have doctorate degrees. Is it just me or did the President mention Niger Delta thugs and when speaking of Fulani herdsmen and cattle rustler, they weren’t referred to as killers and arsonists. But what do I know?


What sense is there to damage a gas line as a result of which many towns in the country including their own town or village is put in darkness as a result? What logic is there in blowing up an export pipeline and as a result income to your state and local governments and consequently their ability to provide services to your own people is reduced? To use the President’s though pattern, what sense is there to kill people innocently living in their own community? What logic is there in burning to ashes other people’s communities all in the name of protecting your cattle business?

It is known that the clean-up of the Ogoniland has started


I’m aware that the Hydrocarbon Pollution Restoration Project (HYPREP) Governing Council and Board of Trustees for the Trust Board have been inaugurated and that the President officially held a ceremony to flag off the commencement of the Ogoni Clean-Up. If that is what the President meant when he said the clean-up has started, then he is absolutely right. Otherwise, Mr. President is talking nonsense because when I asked friends presiding in Ogoni land, they are aware that the clean-up has begun in the President’s speech. Like a friend said, in Nigeria, every activity is subsumed or immersed in a ceremony, so the ceremony is taken sometimes as the activity. But indeed the clean-up looks like the real deal and this Government will take credit for it, a massive thumbs up to the Government when this eventually takes off outside the realm of the President’ speech. By the way I understand that the Ogoni people “are in existential crisis, some form of conflict between the obvious unexplainable delay and the obvious clamp down on them since “their son” didn’t deem it fit to commence the clean-up”.


In fighting corruption, however, the government would adhere strictly by the rule of law

This is unbelievable! You would adhere strictly by the rule of law? In 16 months you have raped the rule of law in all its ramifications. Its pointless reminding anybody of the countless number of times this Government has violated the rule of law but maybe a refresher course will be helpful. Let us talk about a few – a) not one person has been prosecuted for the murder of about 1,000 Shiite Muslims by the military late last year and despite all entreaties, the leader of the Shiites and his wife have remained incarcerated without trial; b) I know Dasuki is a soft spot for many Nigerians but we cannot just put a man in jail without recourse to the rule of law; c) the military has killed scores of IPOB members and nothing has been done about this, rule of law?; d) dissenting journalists and bloggers have been arrested and incarcerated without court orders but hey, they were only ‘invited’ for chats lasting for days. What if by this speech, the President has decided to turn a new leaf. You remember Snowball in the George Orwell classic “Animal Farm”? Well, President Buhari is Snowball in 2016. Machiavelli’s words in “The Prince” resonate in my mind at this moment: “Everyone admits how praiseworthy it is in a prince to keep his word, and to behave with integrity rather than cunning. Nevertheless our experience has been that those princes who have done great things have considered keeping their word of little account, and have known how to beguile men’s minds by shrewdness and cunning. In the end these princes have overcome those who have relied on keeping their word.”  Maybe as Machiavelli admits, sometimes, lies are necessary to achieve a greater good.

There has been during the period June 2015 to September 2016 big improvement in transmission capacity from five thousand five hundred megawatts to the present seven thousand three hundred megawatts

When I saw this, I checked our transmission capacity statistics from the Transmission Company of Nigeria to confirm whether there is a foundational basis for this assertion, and the President may have been misled unless the TCN is not sure of what our transmission capacity is. We currently have an operational transmission capacity of 5,500Mw. Yes, there are ongoing projects that will improve our transmission capacity (projects channeled towards expanding our transmission lines. Simply put, a transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electric currents. Thus, even if we are able to generate the electricity that can meet our energy need, without those transmission lines, we will not be able to get the electricity to homes, offices and industries where it is needed (unless of course for captive power, in the absence of proper transmission capacity, generated electricity will go to waste)) but even those projects are unlikely to bring us close to 7,000Mw next year. The Government is however making effort to increase our transmission capacity to about 10,000Mw by the year 2019, and whilst that is absolutely commendable, we need to be clear that available capacity is nothing if it is not operational. However, we must not fail to commend the government’s effort with respect to the Mambilla Hydro Project. It is my sincere hope that the project will be speedily completed as it will bring some respite to our debilitating generation capacity.


Investors from all over the world are falling over themselves to come and do business in Nigeria.

It is not fair to write this in a speech delivered by the President at a time like this; at a time when capital flight and brain drain are on a meteoric rise. Who wrote this speech? Did the Vice-President see this before-hand? He is leading the economic team and he could have advised the president against this obvious goof. Falling over themselves? Really? Is that some form of new metaphor? Mr. President began this macabre dance that confused foreign investors, first he refused, neglected and failed to constitute his cabinet for six months, during which foreign investors elected not to play poker with their investments; then he went around the world announcing how dirty our dirty linens were; then he stubbornly refused to let wisdom prevail in respect of our foreign exchange capacity, during which time we defended a Naira that was already crumbled and crushed; the result of which was a further depletion of our already depleted foreign reserves. As a result of all these economic confusion, foreign direct investment which stood at about $395million in the first quarter of 2015 had declined by 56% to $175million in the first quarter of 2016; whilst foreign portfolio investment had declined to $90.3million from $621million (and before you chop up my head, my source is the Vice-President’s tweet of August 11, 2016). And there has been little or no respite ever since. So when the President says that investors from all over the world are falling over themselves to come and do business in Nigeria, I believe he says so as a prayer of faith, and definitely not a statement of fact.


Happy Independence Day Nigerians, may we have cause to truly celebrate October 1 in the year 2017.


Oluwatosin Fatoyinbo is a lawyer with a leading full service law firm in Lagos



Expectations and Reality: The Fate of a Recent Petroleum Engineering Graduate

By Adebola Olanrewaju

So it’s official! The Petroleum industry is going through its worst years in recent memory. Oil prices have reached new lows; four, five times? I have lost count myself. Petroleum Engineering graduates like me have made bookmarks of websites like Reuters, CNBC and Bloomberg on our browsers as we constantly monitor the slump. For the sake of knowledge, I would do a quick recap of how this crisis started.

The slump in oil price is a classic Economics 101 case of Demand and Supply, as CNN’s Richard Quest rightly explained. Demand for crude oil has greatly reduced over the last couple of years due to the drop in the growth rate of major economies while supply has increased significantly.

Also, the crisis had been fueled by America’s discovery of shale oil in early 2014 – one they have been able to economically extract. With this, America went from being a major importer to an exporter of crude oil.
As if that was not enough, Saudi Arabia and Iran (both are members of OPEC, lest we forget) decided to start their own ‘economic war’ which further affected oil prices.
Sanctions placed on Iran were lifted late 2015/early 2016 and Iran is bent on claiming its oil market share by increasing oil production by 500,000 barrels a day. In summary, even with the low demand, oil supply is still on the rise, causing oil prices to plummet.
So where does that leave us, the Petroleum Engineering graduates?

While in the University in Nigeria, there was this common notion: ‘Just finish school and start collecting armed robbers salary’. That was the expectation. Oil was selling at well over $100 per barrel and all seemed to be well.
Now that our dear oil companies have aggressively halved their workforce and stopped recruiting due to the dip in prices, it is apparent that the landscape has changed considerably. This is the reality we face as graduates in this volatile industry. So where do we, the Petroleum Engineering graduates go from here?

As dire as the situation seems, there are still quite a number of options for the Petroleum Engineer. The most obvious route, especially for the gurus, would be to obtain a  Masters degree. A friend of mine attended an Oil and Gas conference, met a representative of a company (name withheld) and asked about job opportunities. “This is the best time to go back to school” was the laconic reply he got. I would go no further on that option.

Another alternative would be to choose another sector such as the Accounting sector. January 29 2016 made it exactly a year since I wrote my final exams at the University of Ibadan and I have hardly applied for oil and gas jobs. Not because I don’t want feel like working in an oil firm (LOL! of course, everybody wants to) but because most oil companies are not recruiting. I find myself applying for jobs at the likes of KPMG and PwC. Trust me, it’s saddening but hey, that’s the reality. Man must chop!!!
The last route will be to look for an Oil company;  if you know someone that has an Uncle who knows a friend that owns an Oil servicing company (i.e. if your legs are longer than Usain Bolt’s), please use them and get that job while you wait for the mega job.
History has taught us that oil prices will rise again, therefore patience is the name of the game (It rose from $28per barrel to $35 per barrel today due to Russia’s intervention. That’s some good news).

The oil industry goes through periods of crests and troughs and I strongly believe the next crest is just around the corner. It is therefore essential to be fully prepared for this crest. If you have to go to school, please do so. If you can gain experience, do that as well. Whatever you do, just make sure you are on the move. Do something worthwhile, else you will find yourself competing with the present 200 and 300 level students when that mega job you always dreamt of comes around.
Now how would it feel if you don’t have an edge over them?

This article was inspired by Stephen Hunyinbo’s personal message on BlackBerry Messenger: “The gap between expectations and realities though. Sometimes, it just pays to be a pessimist.”

Adebola Olanrewaju is a graduate of Petroleum Engineering from the University of Ibadan


The Armageddon is really nigh. There is nothing as precise and accurate an explanation as that. Nationals are increasing their knack to bear arms against the State. As each second ticks, the idea of genuine national rebirth or rearmament of the nation for genuine transformation seems to be as inane as it gets. Nothing can be more shameful. Woe unto a nation that is afraid of its nationals. Woe betides the nation that is scared of imposing its laws within its territory. To the thoughtful, these are strange times. The Shiites debacle that occurred a fortnight ago shows that Nigeria is still an idea, it has not evolved in its fullness. A time will come when this historical and political merry-go-round will come to a halt. When rhetoric of national unity will be exhausted and reality will unfurl. Meanwhile, as always, our responses have been filled with crass indecision and acutely implausible arguments powered by religious innuendos.

Let us lay it as bare as possible; a bunch of miscreants in the name of religious beliefs, armed with machetes, planks and other dangerous weapons, mounted a road block. In the ensuing intervening events, the Chief of Army Staff who by a stroke of sheer fate, was passing by and needed that road as a route, happened to meet a resistant bunch of scoundrels, claiming he had no right of way. A mental replay; the Nigerian soldier that we have grown to know is passing by your neighbourhood and without any reason; you said he had no right of way. Well, without equivocation, a slap and a kick would have been the most civil of responses you would have got. But this Chief of Staff, for some consideration ( I doubt if it is mere dictates of reason, or maturation of the soldier’s mind, or awareness of fundamental human rights which the soldier considers mundane) came down in person to beg the machete-wielding goons to leave the road. A plea they turned down. Their “civil” responses were chants and abuses, with some of them claiming that even if the president was passing, he would not be allowed. Now that is as unreasonable as it can get.  Few hours after the altercation, many were on their way to the afterlife. Well, let the dying bury the dead.

To my utmost chagrin, many have berated the army for being blood-thirsty and having flagrant disregard for human rights. Many a phrases have been thrown into the marketplace that is the internet, like “the reckless” , “unprofessional” Nigerian soldiers. Without any ounce of apology, I say poo. I think we have been stressed by the caterwauling state of the Nation, that proper analysis of happenstances is no longer our forte. And we are also being dragged along the global penchant for political correctness, that we say things as soothingly as possible, even if untrue. And I must also say that we have evolved an attitude of greeting the efforts of our armed forces with derision and ridicule. Nigeria is a fundamentally flawed state with fundamentally flawed institutions, but our arms men in spite of their much avowed irritability have held their own very well. The political and security architecture of the nation will stress any armed force anywhere in the world no matter how best equipped, talk less of an ill equipped one as ours. Our armed forces are handling the rage of internal security challenges, national orientation programmes in NYSC, external aggressions, international collaborations etc, and still they are always derided by the people they protect. It is as unconscionable an attitude as it can get.

We are currently in a dicey situation, a semblance of terrorist attack against the state, which in the rambling odyssey of our nation, we have never experienced. We have lost many lives and properties, consequentially stretched beyond limits, by the travails of our displaced compatriots and stretchered by the tragedy of the yet-to-return chibok girls. All these oddities emanating from this same zone. We have so much wailed at the number of our maimed friends, but we have not asked ourselves the numbers of dead soldiers. What I saw was a soldiers’ chief who in all civility, tried to douse an unwarranted tension caused by the arms-bearing young ones. He did what we do not always see a Nigerian soldier do. He should be commended not condemned, he tried his possible best.

The militarization of religious sects is the reason we are where we are. There are efforts being put in place to pacify the aggrieved sect. Once again, as always, we dress our problems, we do not address them. Ethno-religious militarization is the effect of the inability of the state to impose itself when it is faced with challenges. People are talking about caution. There is nothing; absolutely nothing to be cautious about, but to uproot this menace totally. These people can never be assuaged. That Iran was the first to raise eyebrow (reports have it that Ibrahim Yakub Elzakzaky even called an aide of Iran’s president), shows that we are yet to see the last of this sect. While rummaging through informations available on the Shiites, I found an open letter written by one Abdussamad Umar Jibia, an associate professor     and Head of Department of Mechatronics Engineering Bayero University Kano, quite instructive and educative. It is crucial to note that this open letter, predates the current hullabaloo as it had been written as far back as May 12, 2015. The academic is a seer. He stated that “it is well known that the original members of the group known as Boko Haram or Jama’atu Ahlissunnah Lidda’wati wal Jihad as they call themselves were students of one Muhammadu Yusuf who lived and preached in Maidugri until his death in the hand of the Nigerian Police in 2009. It is also well known that the final episode that led to confrontation between his disciples and security forces was the refusal of his followers to obey simple driving rules like the wearing of helmets by motorcyclists. However, my reason for writing you this letter is not Boko Haram. It is something worse than Boko Haram. Yes worse. It is a sect more dreadful than Boko Haram that has established itself in all strata of Muslim Ummah in Nigeria. They are in the civil service. They are in business. Their members have deliberately come close to several unsuspecting politicians of note. It is Shia”. He stated further that “Shia was embraced by Persians because they saw it as an opportunity to distort a religion that destroyed their kingdom and culture. After the Iranian revolution which was led by Shiite scholars, the government of Iran set an agenda to spread Shia to other countries. In Nigeria, this task was to be carried out by one Ibrahim Yakub Elzakzaky. The man Elzakzaky devised several strategies to achieve his mission. First, he banked on the gullibility of some Muslim youth who could easily be misled by slogans like ‘Islamic revolution’, ‘establishment of Islamic state’, ‘total change’, etc. …….”

He continued “There is plenty more on Shiites and their doctrine. What, however, would be of major concern to your Government is their notoriety in dealing with Government and fellow Nigerians. Way back in the 1990s, the Shiites constituted a major threat to the public in Kaduna state. For a period, any Islamic preacher who dared to criticize Ibrahim Elzakzaky or Ayatullahi Khomaini in his preaching was attacked and beaten in his house in the presence of his wife and children.

The main activities of Shiites are demonstrations which they organize on specific occasions like the Quds and Ashura days. During these demonstrations, they block main roads in cities across the North and intimidate the public including the Police whose permission they do not seek. Last year, this type of event led to a clash between the Army and the sect members leading to the death of several people including three children of Mallam Ibrahim Elzakzaky. In addition, these heretics organize an annual pilgrimage to Zaria for which they trek in large groups from certain points to go and meet their leader. In the process of this long trek, they block major highways and create a lot of havoc for travelers. This is watched by the security agents and nothing is done to stop it. Like the Boko Haram of Muhammadu Yusuf, the Shiites have no regard for any rule, no matter how harmless it is….”

I would have continued the reduction of his letter but for space constrains. What we have at hand is an Armageddon waiting to happen. It is no time for ethnic masturbation or stroking religious egos. Disaster is waiting to occur. If the Northern Elite in the long term refuses to reinvent their region anew through mass education of the populace, that part will be torn into shreds by needless extremism. In the short term, all appearances of extremism should be nipped in the bud. No two ways about it. Else the only way is hell.. Arms must be wrestled away by the Army to prevent this impending Armageddon. I stand by the Army on this.

Oluwatosin Fatoyinbo: Have we Awoken the Dictator?

The idea of the uncommanded commander was postulated by John Austin in his Positivist theory of Legal Jurisprudence; that idea is obsolete and does not apply to majority of modern society. As much as we want to argue that some societies have retained this notion, it is not in its entirety.

The commander may hold majority power but all powers are not placed in his hands. The hitherto dictatorship regimes in Egypt and Libya are clear examples of the shift from that era. The uncommanded commander has over time gone with medieval political societies. The Law has evolved means of checks and balance. Even the Yoruba Kings who were called ‘Kabiesi’ (none like you) had their limits as the ‘Oyomesi’ or the Kingmakers could at any point in time ask the King to ‘shi Igba’ (commit suicide) whenever he goes ultra vires and uncontrollable.

With democracy, the system of checks and balances has been further helped with the economic theory of division of labour and the political theory of separation of power. Democracy is not a totally strange concept to us here in Nigeria. We started with democratic governance and ideals upon independence in 1960 but relinquished power to the military for almost 80% of our existence. It thus seems that undemocratic leadership fits our lifestyles. Many thus hailed President Olusegun Obasanjo for his no nonsense style of leadership even when he often overlooked the provisions of the law. He was a military man who is used to his words being the command. You don’t disobey your commander in military circles and go scot free; this was Baba Iyabo’s pattern throughout his eight years at Aso Rock.

Unfortunately for us in Nigeria, we have become so used to dictatorial regimes that we often see leaders who attempt to be democratic as being weaklings. If he doesn’t order the arrest of his political enemies, he is a weakling. If he doesn’t silence the opposition, he is a weakling. If he does not declare ‘war’ regardless of the battlefield, he is a weakling. While it is true that the President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, he is not necessarily a man of the Armed Forces and he does take ‘instructions’ from the real Armed Forces commanders. The use of force is not his prerogative, the use of force is only where necessary and to protect the interest of the people and not to enlarge his personal tent.

That President Goodluck Jonathan is termed a ‘weakling’ is no secret. He has often been accused of being too slow and indecisive as a Commander-in-Chief. He hasn’t harassed political opponents with the federal watchdog EFCC as did Baba Iyabo. He mishandled the Boko Haram invasion of his territory and convinced no one that he was the right man for the job. While many were being slaughtered in Borno and Yobe, Mr. President was appealing rather than commanding. It was obvious that he was not on top of the situation. He either was too weak to listen to his Army Chiefs or the Army Chiefs were as confused as the ‘bloody civilian’ President. The tag ‘weakling’ became President Jonathan’s middle name.

However, with recent developments, it is difficult to say that Mr. President is still the weakling we take him to be. Maybe he is not in the calibre of Baba Iyabo but believe me, Oga Jona is not a weakling and he sure knows how to wield the big gun when pushed.

The way and manner in which the President handled the Rivers State crisis was the first indication I had that just maybe the Presidency have begun to wield the presidential powers. The security detail of the Governor were withdrawn, that of the Speaker was also withdrawn. The so called victim of the ‘macing’ show was charged to court instead of the man who starred as the 007 on the show. The Presidency denied knowing anything about the whole crisis but we all knew that this was but a white lie. The target was the stubborn and seemingly unbreakable Mr. Rotimi Amaechi. The President succeeded in using his powers to create two NGFs, one headed by a de facto Chairman, the other headed by a de jure chairman. Eventually the NGF was polarized and weakened, thus the President’s opponents were denied the use of that avenue to weaken his 2015 political fortune. With the NGF mechanism destroyed, the opposition outside the opposition Party had to come up with another mechanism to destroy Jonathan and thus the new PDP was born.

The seal off of the Alhaji Abubakar Baraje led new PDP secretariat over the weekend was done to prevent the new PDP from formally launching during the new week. The court had earlier ordered that the status quo be maintained and while this is subject to differing interpretation, the Presidency quickly moved to put an end to the new PDP before they take effective root. The status quo order of the court can best be interpreted as that there is only one constitutionally recognized PDP until at least the court substantively hear the suit brought before it. So the question of whether the Police was right in sealing of the secretariat of the new PDP could be answered in the affirmative.

However, the act of sealing off of the secretariat further indicates that perhaps the President is ready to fight dirty and achieve his 2015 dream by all means. I wonder if we have not awoken the dictator in the President or perhaps, he has never being docile as we assumed.

Follow me on twitter @tosinfat